Needle 1 A 33-Year Follow-up of Narcotics Addicts

This study examined a 33 year pattern of addictive heroin use, other substance use, health, mental health, employment, criminal involvement, and mortality among heroin addicts.

The sample was composed of 581 male heroin addicts admitted to the California Civil Addict Program (CAP) during the years 1962 through 1964; CAP was a compulsory drug treatment program for heroin-dependent criminal offenders.

This 33-year follow-up study updates information previously obtained from admission records and 2 face-to-face interviews conducted in 1974-1975 and 1985-1986; in 1996-1997, at the latest follow-up,

  • 284 were dead and
  • 242 were interviewed.

In 1996-1997, the mean age of the 242 interviewed subjects was 57.4 years. Age, disability, years since first heroin use, and heavy alcohol use were significant correlates of mortality.

Of the 242 interviewed subjects,

  • 20.7% tested positive for heroin (with additional 9.5% urine refusal and 14.0% incarceration, for whom urinalyses were unavailable),
  • 66.9% reported tobacco use,
  • 22.1% were daily alcohol drinkers, and

Many reported illicit drug use in the past-year

  • heroin 40.5%;
  • marijuana, 35.5%;
  • cocaine, 19.4%;
  • crack, 10.3%;
  • amphetamine, 11.6%

The group also reported high rates of

  • health problems,
  • mental health problems, and
  • criminal justice system involvement.

Long-term heroin abstinence was associated with

  • less criminality,
  • less morbidity,
  • less psychological distress, and
  • higher employment.

While the number of deaths increased steadily over time, heroin use patterns were remarkably stable for the group as a whole.

For some, heroin addiction has been a lifelong condition associated with severe health and social consequences.

Yih-Ing Hser, PhD; Valerie Hoffman, PhD; Christine E. Grella, PhD; M. Douglas Anglin, PhD. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:503-508

Death by Heroin Recovery by Hope by Mary Kenny


Related Reading:

The Drug Book: From Arsenic to Xanax, 250 Milestones in the History of Drugs (Sterling Milestones)
Narcotics Anonymous Step Working Guides
Breaking Addiction: A 7-Step Handbook for Ending Any Addiction
Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior